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基于成组生物毒性测试的颗粒物毒性及理化因

作者:完美论文网  来源:www.wmlunwen.com  发布时间:2019/10/26 13:52:15  

摘要:为了准确评估 PM2.5的综合生物毒性并找出致毒因子,分别采用发光细菌急性毒性、斑马鱼胚胎急性毒性和体外人肺腺癌细胞(A549)毒性实验对常州市居民文教区、畜禽养鸡场、污水处理厂空气中 PM2.5进行成组生物毒性评价,并结合颗粒物理化指标(可溶性离子、重金属、碳元素)进行相关性分析。

结果表明,3 个不同城市功能区均表现出急性毒性或发育毒性。在常州市居民文教区中,雾-霾天与非雾-霾天的 PM2.5 平均毒性(average toxicity,AvTx)、毒性指数(toxic print,TxPr)和最敏感测试(most sensitive test,MST)3 种综合毒性评价方法表明冬季雾-霾天和冬季正常天均表现出有毒,夏季则表现出微毒,其中以冬季雾-霾天 PM2.5的综合毒性最高。在发育毒性方面主要表现出心包囊肿、脊椎弯曲和尾部畸形。另外在常州市居民文教区的春节前中后期 AvTx、TxPr 和 MST 综合毒性评价均表明春节后期综合毒性最大,其次为春节前期,春节中期则最小,在发育毒性方面主要表现为心包囊肿和脊椎弯曲。在常州市某养鸡场中的 AvTx、TxPr 和 MST 综合毒性评价从大到小排序为:大鸡区>小鸡区>室外>无鸡区,在发育毒性方面主要表现出心包囊肿和尾部弯曲。在污水厂样品中 AvTx、TxPr 和 MST 综合毒性评价排序为:污泥区>进水区(上风向)>下风向>好氧区>二沉池,在发育毒性方面主要表现出心包囊肿和脊椎弯曲。此外,3 种测试生物对 PM2.5的敏感度排序为发光细菌>斑马鱼胚胎>A549。理化指标和生物毒性的相关性分析结果表明PM2.5 中所含的污染物对生物毒性效应产生一定的影响,其中 SO42-、NO3-、OC、EC、Zn、Pb、Se、Cu、Al 等理化因子与 PM2.5 毒性呈显著相关性,即上述 8种理化指标为主要致毒因子。此外发光细菌毒性与 HNO2、Mg2+、NO3-、SO42-呈显著相关性,斑马鱼胚胎毒性仅与重金属 Zn 和 Cu 呈现相关性,体外 A549 细胞毒性则与 HNO3、K+和 Zn 呈显著相关。因此通过利用成组生物毒性测试并结合综合毒性评价指标可用来评价 PM2.5 的生物安全性,此外将综合毒性评价结果与理化指标进行相关性分析从而找出致毒因子,可为 PM2.5生物毒性综合评价和人体健康风险评估提供依据。

PM2.5 samples from Changzhou ResidentCultural and Educational Districtwinter , chicken farm, sewage treatment plantwere selected for biotoxicity evaluation based on the acute toxicity ofluminescent bacteria and zebrafish embryos and cytotoxicity of human lungadenocarcinoma cells in vitro (A549), combined with the three periods ofatmospheric physical and chemical indicators for correlation analysis toaccurately evaluate the comprehensive biotoxicity of PM2.5. Average toxicity(AvTx), toxic print (TxPr) and most sensitive test (MST)show that the PM2.5 sampleshave toxicity in winter fog-haze days and winter normal days. while PM2.5samples in the summer days show slight toxicity, and the PM2.5 samples inwinter fog-haze days have the highest comprehensive toxicity. Inaddition,luminescent bacteria is most sensitive to PM2.5 samples, followed byzebrafish embryos, while A549 is less sensitive. In terms of developmentaltoxicity, the PM2.5 samples in the other two periods all have effects on thedevelopment of zebrafish embryos, mainly showing pericardial edema, bentnotochord and tail deformity, except for PM2.5 in summer days. The order fromlarge to small in AvTx, TxPr and MST for chicken farm is: big chicken area >small chicken area > outdoor area > no

chicken area and developmental toxicityshow pericardial edema, bent

notochord and tail deformity. The orderfrom large to small in AvTx, TxPr and MST for sewage treatment plant is: SludgeArea > Intake Area (Upwind Direction) > Downwind Direction > AerobicArea > Secondary Sedimentation Tank and developmental toxicity showpericardial edema, bent notochord and tail deformity. The analysis results ofphemical analysis and biological toxicity show that the pollutants contained inPM2.5 have an impact on the biological toxicity effect. The physical andchemical factors (SO42-, NO3-, OC, EC, Zn, Pb, Se, Cu, Al) are significantlycorrelated with toxicity of PM2.5. In addition, the acute toxicity ofluminescent bacteria is significantly correlated

with HNO2, Mg2+, NO3-, SO42-, and the acutetoxicity of zebrafish embryos was only correlated with heavy metals Zn and Cu.Finally, the cytotoxicity of A549 in vitro was significantly correlated withHNO3, K+ and Zn. Toxicity of PM2.5 based on a battery of bioassays withcomprehensive toxicity evaluation, and combine with physical and chemicalindicators for correlation analysis to find the poisoning factors, which canprovide a basis for the comprehensive assessment of PM2.5 biological toxicityand human health risk assessment.

关键词:PM2.5;斑马鱼;发光细菌;A549;理化因子;成组生物毒性

particulate matter;zebrafish;luminescentbacteria;A549;

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